About PetersPioneersCTS10893 Saxon DNA

By Peter Biggins

My cousin Paul Drueke had his Y-chromosome DNA tested at Family Tree DNA. Father Franz Rinschen, pastor of Mariä Himmelfahrt Church in Schönholthausen, Germany, provided valuable information on the Saxon roots of our great great great grandfather Johann Drücke. Andrew Booth, Iain McDonald, Charles Moore, Raymond Wing, and other administrators of the U106 project have contributed to our understanding of this DNA. Jim Nickel; and Geoff Blackburn have contributed to this page.

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CTS10893 SNP Tree. Several thousand years ago a certain mutation occurred in a man's Y chomosome. A mutation is called a SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism), and this one has been named CTS10893. It has been indentified in a relatively small group of men who have had their DNA tested since 2004. Further testing of a large portion of the Y-chromosome has identified other SNPs that have occurred down to the present time. Some are unique to everyone in this this group. Some are unique to subsets of this group. And, some are unique to individuals in this group.

The CTS10893 SNP Tree presented below includes the SNPs of men who have tested a large part of the Y-chromosome under the Big Y-500 program at Family Tree DNA. They are members of the U106 project.

The tree is from Alex Williamson's Big Tree. It can be found on the CTS10893 portion of his Big Tree. Testers have downloaded their raw results from their FTDNA homepage. The raw results are then uploaded to the Y-DNA Data Warehouse. Testers agree to making their results public on the Big Tree. Alex compares a tester's SNPs with other testers and puts him on his Big Tree based on shared SNPs. We owe Alex Williamson a debt of gratitude for producing his Big Tree and including us in it. Alex has the DNA of a group called the Little Scottish Cluster.

These SNPs occurred from about four thousand years ago down to the present time. The age of the CTS10893 SNP, also known as S3595, was estimated by YFull.

CTS10893 SNP Tree

Scroll to the right and down to see the full tree, or click here for a larger window

Background. My cousin Paul Drueke had his Y-chromosome DNA tested by Family Tree DNA in 2012. We started a Drueke DNA project at FTDNA, with Paul and me as administrators. We have no other Druekes yet, but we welcome anyone with CTS10893 DNA.

Paul's Y-DNA is in Haplogroup R and includes the CTS10893 SNP. A SNP is a "single-nucleotide polymorphism," a mutation that occurs very infrequently. This SNP was originally found in Charles Moore's DNA in December 2012 as part of the Geno 2.0 Project sponsored by National Geographic, with testing by Family Tree DNA. FTDNA eventually offered this test to members directly in July 2013, and Paul received his positive result in August 2013. In July 2015, Paul received his results for Big Y, and we constructed the tree above for Paul and 24 others with CTS10893 DNA.

Our oldest known ancestor with this DNA is our great, great, great grandfather, Johann Drücke, was born in 1743 in Elspe, Westphalia, Germany. He lived most of his life nearby in a house in Ostentrop. He traded in Westphalian hams, which he bought from farmers in the area and sold in Münster to the north and Frankfurt to the south. He also traded in seltzer water, which he bought in Selters, a town between Ostentrop and Frankfurt.

Volker Kennemann wrote an article about Johann Drücke in the December 2013 edition of the magazine of the Finnentrop historical society. See: Trader and Transporter.

Westphalia, where Johann Drücke was from, is part of Old Saxony. Old Saxony consisted of Lower Saxony and western Saxony-Anhalt as well as Westphalia.

It turns out Paul's DNA matches mostly people with English sounding names from:

  • England (Arnold, Bennett, Ozment, Self, Wooten)
  • Wales (Ellis, Price)
  • Ireland (Moore)
  • Scotland (Armstrong, Greer, Russell, Scott)
Many people with English names have Germanic origins. And his DNA is what they call Saxon DNA. The Saxons were Germanic tribes who invaded and settled the south and east of Britain from the early 5th century up to the Norman conquest in 1066. Our ancestor is from Westphalia, which was part of Old Saxony.

Paul is kit number 230496. His DNA can be found in several projects at FTDNA: Drueke project, U106 project, Germany project, and Anglo-Saxon project.

More About the Tree. The tree shows Y-chromosome SNPs of BIG Y testers. SNPs are single nucleotide polymorphisms, also called mutations, or variants. These SNPs occurred in the portion of the Y chromosome tested by BIG Y. BIG Y tests a large portion of the Y chromosome but not all of it.

Originally, Andrew Booth, a professor of biology at the University of Leeds, matched them with each other, put them on a spreadsheet, and put the spreadsheet. Andrew died in 2016, and Iain McDonald, an astrophysicist at The University of Manchester, has taken over the spreadsheet. (Iain is an Honorary Research Fellow in the Genealogical Studies Department of the University of Strathclyde in Glasgow. He comes originally from an Aberdonian family, and began his interest in genealogy 15 years ago, while trying to identify any family connection to the Lords of the Isles. Unfortunately, there was no connection, but the process led to an avid interest in Scottish genealogy, and the early history and movement of the Scottish people.)

As shown above, Alex Williamson is in the process of putting results on his Big Tree.

Ray Wing has developed and maintains a U106 Tree, which includes CTS10893.

SNPs unique to a tester are shown under the tester's ancestral name and FTDNA kit number. SNPs common to two or more testers are shown above those testers.

SNPs are either named or unnamed.

  • Unnamed SNPs have a 7 or 8 digit number based on their position on the Build 37 human reference genome, followed by letters. The letters indicate the nature of the mutation, e.g. from C to T.
  • Named SNPs have been given a short name to make them easieer to remember. If you wave over them with your cursor, you will see the longer SNP designation. SNPs in bold are available for testing individually at FTDNA.
    • "A" SNPs were named by Thomas Krahn, MSc (Dipl.-Ing.), YSEQ.net, Houston, Texas.
    • "BY" SNPs were named by FTDNA through BIG Y.
    • "CTS" SNPs were named by Chris Tyler-Smith of The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute.
    • "FGC" SNPs were named by the Full Genomes Corporation.
    • "PF" were named by Paolo Francalacci, Ph.D., Università di Sassari, Sassari, Italy
    • "PH" were named by Pille Hallast, Ph.D., University of Leicester, Department of Genetics, United Kingdom
    • "S" SNPs were named by James F. Wilson, D.Phil. at Edinburgh University.
    • "Y" SNPs were named by the Y Full Team using data from the 1000 Genomes Project.
    • "Z" SNPs were assigned by the Community.
A list of SNPs is presented in unnamed numerical order. Their historical order is not known.

The order of testers from left to right is based on when results became available and whether testers share SNPs.

SNP Age. SNPs occur randomly. The number of SNPs can vary a lot by tester. On average over a large population for a long time period, some have estimated that Big Y SNPs might occur every 120 years.

BIG Y. BIG Y is a testing program offered by Family Tree DNA that tests a large part of the Y-chromosome. It identifies a man's SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) and compares those SNPs with other men it has tested. The CTS10893 BIG Y SNP Tree includes the SNPs of all men who have been tested under the BIG Y program and have the CTS10893 SNP. Testers have downloaded their raw results from their FTDNA homepage. The raw results are then uploaded to the Y-DNA Data Warehouse. Testers agree to making their reults public on the Big Tree. Andrew Booth and Raymond Wing put raw results on a spreadsheet and match them up with other testers. The tree above is based on that spreadsheet.

CTS10893 DNA. The group of people with CTS10893 DNA has tested postive for the CTS10893 SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism), which is downstream of the U106 SNP. The CTS10893 SNP was discovered by Chris Tyler-Smith of The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, a charitably funded genomic research centre located in Hinxton, nine miles south of Cambridge in the UK. The CTS10893 SNP was included in the National Geographic Geno 2.0 Project, along with other CTS SNPs discovered by Chris. Family Tree DNA does the testing for Geno 2.0, which started in 2012, and subsequently offered it to its regular customers.

CTS10893 is also known as S3595, a name given to it by James F. Wilson, D.Phil. at Edinburgh University, and head of the Scotland's DNA group.

CTS10893 is downstream of the U106 SNP, which is sometimes referred to as the Saxon SNP. Below is a tree showing how CTS10893 fits in with other SNPs that are downstream of U106. (Not all people with a given SNP have a SNP downstream of that SNP.)

Abbreviated U106 SNP Tree, Including CTS10893

U106     (3022 BC)     (492=13)
(2380 BC)


(1603 BC)

(1247 BC)
Z381     (2964 BC)


(2487 BC)

(1586 BC)
Z301     (2752 BC)
(1651 BC)
L48     (2598 BC)
(1725 BC)
L47     (2283 BC) Z9     (2344 BC)
(1935 BC)
(1893 BC)
Z30     (2182 BC)

Z2     (2077 BC)

Z7     (1792 BC)


(1448 BC)

(906 BC)

(971 BC)


(750 BC)


(112 BC)
Z5, Z8     (1233 BC)
(968 BC)

(457 BC)
Z1     (1196 BC)
(1034 BC)

(704 BC)

(948 BC)

(753 BC)
Dates are very rough "best guesses" by Iain McDonald.     Wettin indicates the DNA for the House of Wettin.     Niederstotzingen indicates the DNA for five individuals buried 1400 ybp near Ulm in Baden-Württemberg, Germany.       ybp is for years before the present, an estimate of when a SNP first occurred.      492=13 indicates that STR 492 has a unique value of 13.      439=0 indicates that STR 439 has a unique null value.      425=0 indicates that STR 425 has a unique null value.      510=15 indicates that STR 510 has a unique value of 15.      There is a Family Tree DNA project for all of U106. There are subprojects for Z18, L1, and U198.

A more detailed tree for U106 is available from the U106 Project here. YFull offers its Experimental Tree, which includes estimates of when SNPs occurred.

U106 Project. The U106 project at Family Tree DNA has a category for people who have tested positive for CTS10893. Categories are listed on the Results page.

The administrator of the project is Charles Moore, who was the first to test positive for CTS10893. Co-administrators, including Raymond Wing, are listed on the Background page.

The U106 project was founded in 2008. The project has a table of Y-DNA marker results for all members. It also has a table of SNP results for all members. Included with most members' results is his most distant Y-DNA ancestor.

U106 project administrator Charles Moore was first to test positive for the CTS10893 SNP.

Anyone with CTS10893 DNA should be sure to join the U106 project.

Surname Projects. In addition to the U106 Project, all are encouraged to join their surname project. The Drueke project welcomes anyone with CTS10893 DNA regardless of surname.

Unique Marker 510=15. In addition to SNPs, Y-DNA can be distinguished with STRs, or Short Tandem Repeats. STRs are referred to here as "markers." Family Tree DNA offers tests of 12, 25, 37, 67, oor 111 markers. Almost all who are CTS10893 and have tested 111 markers have a unique value of 15 for marker 510, the 108th marker. Everyone else with U106 DNA has a value of 16, 17, or 18. So, this marker can be used as a good predictor of whether a person will test positive for the CTS10893 SNP.

U106 Group. Those who want to know the latest information about CTS10893, may wish to participate in the U106 Group. The U106 site is administered by the same people who administer the U106 project at FTDNA. You can actively participate or just keep up to date with what is being said. The purpose of the group is to learn about U106 DNA from material submitted by group members and ask questions of group members. You can send messages to the group, respond to messages submitted by others, add Internet links and files relating to U106, and learn from links and files submitted by others.

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